Drug, diet, pathogen, challenge studies
Studies where a drug, pathogen, special diet, or other perturbation is applied.
Treatment vs. control studies, dosage studies, and other study designs.

• Diets

curcumin dietary supplement
fish oil source of omega-3 fatty acids
glycine amino acid dietary supplement, anti-aging
green tea extract dietary supplement, anti-oxidant
high-fat diet
high-fat high-sucrose diet
inulin soluble fiber dietary supplement
macronutrient diet option choice of fat or carbohydrate
medium-chain triglyceride dietary supplement, reported weight control
methyl-enriched diet
Protandim dietary supplement, anti-aging
protein-deficient diet
restricted diet reduced food amount
resveratrol dietary supplement
selenium non-metal chemical element
simvastatin lipid-lowering drug
sodium chloride table salt NaCl
sucrose table sugar
various diets protein-deficient, methyl-enriched, and vitamin D-deficient diets vs. chow diet
vitamin D-deficient diet
western diet diet with typical Western characteristics

• Drugs, alcohol

17-a-estradiol non-feminizing steroid, anti-aging
2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole multi-site proton acceptor and proton donor
4-OH-a-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone anti-oxidant
acarbose a-glucosidase inhibitor, anti-aging
acetaminophen pain reliever e.g. Tylenol
aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, anti-aging
atenolol treatment for cardiovascular disorders
BEZ235 anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
caffeic acid phenethyl ester anti-oxidant
captopril antihypertensive agent, hyperglycemia study
cocaine psychostimulant, drug of abuse
cyclophosphamide alkylating agent, lupus erythematosus (SLE)) study
DB289 antiparasitic
diazepam anxiety reliever e.g. Valium
docetaxel anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication, cancer study
doxorubicin anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
enalapril medication for high blood pressure, diabetic kidney disease, heart failure
ethanol alcohol EtOH, drug of abuse
fluoxetine antidepressant e.g. Prozac
glatiramer acetate immunosuppressive agent, inflammatory bowel disease study
haloperidol antipsychotic
high-fat diet and ethanol
high-fat diet and olanzapine olanzapine is a schizophrenia / bipolar drug
idarubicin anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
imipramine antidepressant
INT-767 FXR/TGR5 agonist bile acid analog, FXR and TGR5 agonist
isoniazid treatment for tuberculosis
isoproterenol treatment for cardiovascular disorders
lamotrigine anticonvulsant
L-DOPA dopamine agent, Parkinson's Disease study
lithium mood stabilizer
metformin anti-diabetic, anti aging
methamphetamine psychostimulant, drug of abuse
methylene blue agent that protects against oxidative damage
morphine pain medication, drug of abuse
nicotine component of tobacco smoke, drug of abuse
nitroflurbiprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
nordihydroguaiaretic acid antioxidant, anti-aging
oxaloacetic acid intermediary in oxidative metabolism
paclitaxel anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication, cancer study
pilocarpine convulsant
quinelorane dopamine agonist
R-6-Br-APB dopamine agonist
rapamycin mTOR complex repressor, anti-aging
rosiglitazone hypoglycemic agent, diabetes and obesity studies
salbutamol bronchodilator agent, asthma studies
selumetinib anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
TM5441 inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
ursodeoxycholic acid xenobiotic detoxification pathway activator

• Living environment perturbations

exercise option/availability of running wheel

• Pathogens

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin anthrax
Candida albicans fungal infection
F.nucleatum (Fusobacterium nucleatum), periodontal pathogenic bacteria
influenza A (H1N1) virus viral infection
influenza A (H3N2) virus viral infection
influenza A (H5N1) virus viral infection
Neisseria musculi mucosal bacteria
P.gingivalis (Porphyromonas gingivalis), periodontal pathogenic bacteria
Plasmodium berghei malaria
Plasmodium chabaudi malaria
Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection
Streptococcus zooepidemicus respiratory challenge study
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus virus
West Nile virus viral infection

• Surgery

ovariectomy surgical removal of ovaries

• Toxicity, mutagens, challenges

aluminum ammonium sulfate various uses, food, beverages, cosmetics, medicines
benzene elementary petrochemical
cadmium post-transition metal, environmental hazard
dextran sulfate colitis inducer
ENU ethylnitrosourea, mutagen
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, respiratory challenge
methacholine bronchoconstrictor, respiratory tests
ovalbumin allergen, repiratory challenge
ozone air pollutant, respiratory challenge
radiation ionizing radiation
tetrachloroethylene ubiquitous environmental contaminant
trichloroethylene (TCE) industrial contaminant
tumor cell xenograft patient-derived tumor xenografts
ultraviolet light ultraviolet radiation


The following are not considered "interventions" for our purposes:
• Substances (other than substances of abuse) offered in ingestive preference tests
• Glucose tolerance tests and similar
• Where a perturbation is done as necessary preparation for a phenotyping procedure but it's not the primary focus of the study question or study design, such as fasting period before blood studies, pain inducers in nociception tests, or preliminary surgery to induce a certain condition.