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Rusyn2 project protocol

Rusyn I, Threadgill DW with Bradford BU, Lock EF, Kosyk O, Kim S, Uehara T, Harbourt D, Desimone M, Tryndyak V, Pogribny IP, Bleyle L, Koop DR

Effects of trichloroethylene in males of 17 inbred mouse strains

An investigation into the effects of trichloroethylene. There were 3 cohorts: 1) naive mice; 2) control group orally administered vehicle (corn oil); 3) treated group orally administered trichloroethylene (TCE 2100 mg/kg) in vehicle. This project is part of a series, see project page for details.

Study design: control vs. an intervention; 3 cohorts.
17 strains tested     male only     Test age: 7wks

Rusyn2 project data page       Animals and environment

 

 
Rusyn2_Protocol

Project protocol — Contents
Workflow and sampling
Equipment
Reagents, supplies, and solutions
Procedures
Data
Definitions
References



Workflow and sampling

Workflow

Steps
Procedure
Time post-treatment
Equipment
Data collected
1
Male mice (unfasted) of all cohorts are weighed
pre-treatment
balance scale
body weight
2
Control and treated cohorts are given (via gavage) vehicle (control) or TCE
0
-
-
3
Naive, control, and TCE treated mice are weighed and blood sample collected; mice are euthanized for liver and kidney histology
2, 8, 24 hrs
balance scale
body and liver weight
4
Frozen serum are thawed and analyzed for biological markers of tissue injury
-
chemical analyzer
serum ALT, AST, BUN
5
Frozen serum are thawed and analyzed for TCE metabolites
-
HPLC-ESI-MS/MS*
serum DCA, TCA, DCVC, and DCV
*High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Equipment

  • Small rodent dissection pack (scalpel, forceps, scissors, etc.)
  • Centrifuge, tabletop
  • Freezer: -80°C

Blood chemistry analyzer: Automatic Chemical Analyzer, Johnson & Johnson's VT250

• High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with a Finnigan Surveyor autosampler and pump coupled to a Finnigan TSQ Quantum triple-quadruple mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan, San Jose, CA)

• High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESIMS/MS) with an Acquity UPLC® (Waters, Milford, MA) system coupled to a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadruple mass analyzer (Thermo Finnigan, San Jose, CA)

Reagents, supplies, solutions

  • Gavage system for mice
  • Pressurized CO2 gas for euthanasia
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE) (2100 mg/kg) in corn oil (vehicle, 10 mL/kg)
  • Corn oil (vehicle)
  • Needles and syringes
  • Z-gel tubes (Sarstedt, Germany)

Acclimation to test conditions

Mice are acclimated to the new facility for at least 2 wks.

Procedures

I. Treatment, euthanasia, blood collection, and kidney and liver dissection
a.
Unfasted male mice are treated (at 9 am) orally by gavage with TCE (2100 mg/kg) in corn oil (vehicle, 10 mL/kg).
b.
Final body weight is obtained before mice are euthanized.
c.
Mice are sacrificed at 2, 8 and 24 hrs after treatment. The experimental design is selected based on the previous pharmacokinetic analysis of TCE metabolism in male B6C3F1 mice (Kim et al., 2009).
d.
The mice are euthanized by fully trained personnel using CO2 gas asphyxiation.
e.
Blood samples are collected via the vena cava for determination of tissue damage using serum biomarkers and TCE metabolites.
f. Blood samples collected without anti-coagulant are allowed to clot for ~30 min before they are centrifuged.
g.
Serum is prepared by centrifugation using Z-gel tubes according to the manufacturer instructions, separated, stored frozen at -80°C until ready to be analyzed.
h.
The frozen serum is completely thawed before testing for serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels using standard blood chemistry analyzer according to manufacturer's instruction.

II. Determination of TCE metabolites in the serum (see Kim et al., 2009 for greater details)
a. Concentrations of DCA and TCA are measured using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS with autosampler and pump coupled to triple-quadruple mass spectrometer.
b. Determination of DCVC and DCVG is also conducted using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS with an Aquity UPLCĀ® system coupled to a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadruple mass analyzer using a heat-assisted electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode.
c. Quantification is based on peak areas relative to the stable isotope-labeled internal standards and the calibration curve is prepared in each batch.
d. Limits of detection are determined by a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, such that TCA - 0.4 nmol/mL; DCA - 0.01 nmol/mL; DCVG and DCVC - 0.001 nmol/mL.

Data collected by investigator

• Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in naive, control, and TCE-treated groups at 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h post-treatment.

• TCE metabolites in the serum: trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-glutathione (DCVG) in naive, control, and TCE-treated groups at 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h post-treatment.

• Body and liver weights in naive, control, and TCE- treated groups at 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h post-treatment.

Definitions & formulas

dichloroacetic acid (DCA): a major metabolite of TCE.

S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC): oxidative metabolite of TCE.

S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl) glutathione (DCVG): glutathione-conjugated metabolite of TCE.

trichloroacetic acid (TCA): a major metabolite of TCE.

trichloroethylene (TCE): is widely used as an industrial chlorinated organic solvent. It is found in a variety of sources such as indoor and ambient air, soil and groundwater. Human exposure can lead to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and auto-immune disorders.


    Data available through MPD


    Primary project publication

      Bradford BU, Lock EF, Kosyk O, Kim S, Uehara T, Harbourt D, Desimone M, Threadgill DW, Tryndyak V, Pogribny IP, Bleyle L, Koop DR, Rusyn I. Interstrain differences in the liver effects of trichloroethylene in a multistrain panel of inbred mice. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Mar;120(1):206-17. Epub 2010 Dec 6.     PubMed 21135412     MGI     FullText

    Other references

      Corton JC. Evaluation of the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in mouse liver tumor induction by trichloroethylene and metabolites. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38(10):857-75.     PubMed 18821149     MGI

      Kim S, Collins LB, Boysen G, Swenberg JA, Gold A, Ball LM, Bradford BU, Rusyn I. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis method for simultaneous detection of trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine. Toxicology. 2009 Aug 21;262(3):230-8. Epub 2009 Jun 21.     PubMed 19549554     MGI     FullText

      Kim S, Kim D, Pollack GM, Collins LB, Rusyn I. Pharmacokinetic analysis of trichloroethylene metabolism in male B6C3F1 mice: Formation and disposition of trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 1;238(1):90-9. Epub 2009 May 3.     PubMed 19409406     MGI     FullText

      Pogribny IP, Rusyn I, Beland FA. Epigenetic aspects of genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis: studies in rodents. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008 Jan;49(1):9-15.     PubMed 17879298     MGI     FullText


    Web resources





 


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