Drug, diet, pathogen, challenge studies
Studies where a drug, pathogen, special diet, or other perturbation is applied.
Treatment vs. control studies, dosage studies, and other study designs.

• Diets

fish oil source of omega-3 fatty acids
high-fat diet diet high in fat
high-fat diet and ethanol effect on liver of fat and ethanol together
high-fat high-sucrose diet effect on liver of fat and sucrose together
macronutrient diet option choice of fat or carbohydrate
Protandim dietary supplement, anti-aging
restricted diet reduced food amount
sodium chloride table salt NaCl
sucrose table sugar
western diet diet with typical Western characteristics

• Drugs, alcohol

17-a-estradiol non-feminizing steroid, anti-aging
acarbose a-glucosidase inhibitor, anti-aging
acetaminophen pain reliever e.g. Tylenol
atenolol treatment for cardiovascular disorders
BEZ235 anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
captopril antihypertensive agent, hyperglycemia study
cocaine psychostimulant
cyclophosphamide alkylating agent, lupus erythematosus (SLE)) study
DB289 antiparasitic
diazepam anxiety reliever e.g. Valium
docetaxel anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication, cancer study
doxorubicin anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
ethanol alcohol EtOH
fluoxetine antidepressant e.g. Prozac
glatiramer acetate immunosuppressive agent, inflammatory bowel disease study
haloperidol antipsychotic
idarubicin anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
imipramine antidepressant
isoniazid treatment for tuberculosis
isoproterenol treatment for cardiovascular disorders
lamotrigine anticonvulsant
L-DOPA dopamine agent, Parkinson's Disease study
lithium mood stabilizer
metformin anti-diabetic, anti aging
methamphetamine psychostimulant
nicotine component of tobacco smoke
nordihydroguaiaretic acid antioxidant, anti-aging
olanzapine treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar
paclitaxel anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication, cancer study
pilocarpine convulsant
quinelorane dopamine agonist
R-6-Br-APB dopamine agonist
rapamycin mTOR complex repressor, anti-aging
rosiglitazone hypoglycemic agent, diabetes and obesity studies
salbutamol bronchodilator agent, asthma studies
selumetinib anti-cancer drug, anti-neoplastic
ursodeoxycholic acid xenobiotic detoxification pathway activator

• Living environment perturbations

exercise option/availability of running wheel

• Pathogens

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin anthrax
Candida albicans fungal infection
F.nucleatum (Fusobacterium nucleatum), periodontal pathogenic bacteria
influenza A (H1N1) virus viral infection
influenza A (H3N2) virus viral infection
influenza A (H5N1) virus viral infection
P.gingivalis (Porphyromonas gingivalis), periodontal pathogenic bacteria
Plasmodium berghei malaria
Plasmodium chabaudi malaria
Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection
Streptococcus zooepidemicus respiratory challenge study

• Surgery

ovariectomy surgical removal of ovaries

• Toxicity, mutagens, challenges

benzene elementary petrochemical
cadmium post-transition metal, environmental hazard
dextran sulfate colitis inducer
ENU ethylnitrosourea, mutagen
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, respiratory challenge
OxPAPC TLR signalling inhibitor
methacholine bronchoconstrictor, respiratory tests
ovalbumin allergen, repiratory challenge
ozone air pollutant, respiratory challenge
radiation ionizing radiation
tetrachloroethylene ubiquitous environmental contaminant
trichloroethylene (TCE) industrial contaminant
tumor cell xenograft patient-derived tumor xenografts
ultraviolet light ultraviolet radiation


The following are not considered "interventions" for our purposes:
• Substances offered in ingestive preference tests
• Glucose tolerance tests and similar
• Where a perturbation is done as necessary preparation for a phenotyping procedure but it's not the primary focus of the study question or study design, such as fasting period before blood studies, pain inducers in nociception tests, or preliminary surgery to induce a certain condition.